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What are the various cognitive assessment tools?

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The Cognitive Assessment Battery(CAB) in a specific clinical situation is to find out if it could be a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) supplement and differentiate between healthy ageing and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The General Cognitive Assessment Battery is also referred to as the leading professional tool that utilises to study brain function in children over seven years old and adults, who use cognitive tasks online. The results of this neurocognitive test are useful to understand the cognitive status, strengths and weaknesses of the user. It is also helpful to decide whether the cognitive changes the user may go through are regular or reflect several types of neurological disorder. Any private or professional user can effortlessly use this Cognitive Assessment Battery.

People recommend using this neuropsychological evaluation or cognitive test to enhance understanding the cognitive function, as well as cognitive, physical, psychological or social well-being. The main objective of the online cognitive test is to determine where there are indications or complexity related to concentration/attention, memory, reasoning, planning or coordination. This standard cognitive test is done entirely online and lasts between 30 and 40 minutes. After the implementation of the evaluation, a report is generates automatically with the neurocognitive profile of the user. This report collects all necessary information and presents data in a format which is easy to understand. It helps the user or the professional to recognise the state of the various cognitive abilities. It also provides valuable information that can use to identify the risk of a disorder or problem, determine its severity and identify support policy for every case.

Cognitive evaluation tools

These cognitive assessment tools are utilised to recognise people who may need further evaluation. No tool is identified as the best short evaluation to decide if a complete dementia evaluation is required. However, the expert working group identified various instruments appropriate for use in primary care according to the following:

–    administration time ≤5 minutes

–    Validation in a primary or community care setting

–    Psychometric correspondence or superiority to the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE)

–    Easy administration by non-medical personnel and relatively free of educational

–  Linguistic and cultural biases. For a perfect diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia

–    People who do not pass any of these tests should be apprised more thoroughly or referred to a specialist.

There are necessarily two tools are available

  1. Patient assessment tools.
  2. Informative tools
  1. Patient evaluation tools

A general assessment of cognition (GPCOG) – Available in several languages

  • GPCOG website
  • GPCOG tool – English (PDF)

Mini-Cog ™ – Detection of cognitive impairment in older adults

  • Mini-Cog website
  • Mini-Cog (PDF)

          Memory impairment screen (PDF)

  1. Information tools (family and close friends)

Interview with eight elements to differentiate ageing and dementia (AD8) (PDF)

The general assessment of cognition (GPCOG) – Available in several languages

  • GPCOG website
  • GPCOG tool – English (PDF)

A brief questionnaire for informants about cognitive impairment in the elderly

  • (IQCODE) – Available in several languages
  • IQCODE website (Australian National University)
  • IQCODE short – English (PDF)

 Need for Testing

The purpose of cognitive screening tests is to assist the clinician in the before time detection of cognitive change as a first step to accurate diagnosis, a procedure that needed further evaluation. These changes may sign the onset of dementia, like Alzheimer’s disease, or may point out a more significant threat of delirium, like in the postoperative setting, or functional impairment with associated safety alarm. Early recognition of cognitive changes offers an opportunity for case finding, crisis avoidance, and patient identification for early intervention and management, including a conversation of the goals with the patient and the guarantee that the progress directives are full and accurate.

It is well written or documented that dementia leftovers under recognized and maybe the “silent epidemic” of this world. The latest estimates point out that the incidence of most recent cases of Alzheimer’s disease will increase twice by 2050. Also, the enhancement in the continued existence rates of cerebrovascular accidents means increases in vascular dementia and after stroke, since it founds that one-third of patients with stroke develop progressive dementia. Early detection of cognitive change proposes profit for both patients and providers. If the first detection guides to a diagnosis of dementia (regardless of the aetiology), this may offer an explanation to patients and family members regarding current changes in function, mood, and behaviour. A diagnosis of progressive dementia (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body disease, front temporal dementia) makes available an opportunity for the new management of medications, the review and simplification of the continuing treatment of chronic diseases and the avoidance of common problems. They are associated with poor control. More significantly, early diagnosis of dementia permits patients to contribute more in planning their future care requirements, such as perform advance directives.

What test to use

No unique and ideal cognitive detection tool can suggest for use in all clinical settings. The perfect tool would have a high sensitivity (i.e. the proportion of those with impairment correctly classified as disabled), a broad specificity (the percentage of those that are not damaged correctly identified as having no cognitive problems), and a highest positive predictive value (proportion identified by screening as disabled who actually have cognitive impairment). Also, this tool should be simple to administer and score and should take the least amount time to carry out in our clinical environment pressed for time.

Many of the cognitive screening tests currently available and they place too much emphasis on memory and neglect other areas of cognitive function, like executive function, language, and praxis, which may be affected in patients with various conditions. Reviews of the Cognitive screening tests recommend that the screening instrument should comprise six basic neuropsychological domains that are most commonly affected in the early phase of different dementias:

  • Executive function
  • Abstract reasoning
  • Attention/working memory.
  • New verbal learning and memory.
  • Expressive language
  • Visuospatial construction .24

Cognitive assessment can also help in recognition of the at-risk driver or those who must experience an additional assessment of driving ability.